Journal cover Journal topic
Climate of the Past An interactive open-access journal of the European Geosciences Union
Journal topic

Journal metrics

Journal metrics

  • IF value: 3.470 IF 3.470
  • IF 5-year value: 4.009 IF 5-year
    4.009
  • CiteScore value: 3.45 CiteScore
    3.45
  • SNIP value: 1.166 SNIP 1.166
  • IPP value: 3.28 IPP 3.28
  • SJR value: 1.929 SJR 1.929
  • Scimago H <br class='hide-on-tablet hide-on-mobile'>index value: 64 Scimago H
    index 64
  • h5-index value: 43 h5-index 43
Discussion papers
https://doi.org/10.5194/cp-2019-166
© Author(s) 2020. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.
https://doi.org/10.5194/cp-2019-166
© Author(s) 2020. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.

Submitted as: research article 14 Jan 2020

Submitted as: research article | 14 Jan 2020

Review status
This discussion paper is a preprint. It is a manuscript under review for the journal Climate of the Past (CP).

Stripping back the Modern to reveal Cretaceous climate and temperature gradient underneath

Marie Laugié1, Yannick Donnadieu1, Jean-Baptise Ladant2, Mattias Green3, Laurent Bopp4,5, and François Raisson6 Marie Laugié et al.
  • 1Aix Marseille Univ, CNRS, IRD, INRA, Coll. France, CEREGE, Aix-en-Provence, France
  • 2Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, USA
  • 3School of Ocean Sciences, Bangor University, Menai Bridge, UK
  • 4Ecole Normale Supérieure (ENS Paris) - Département des Géosciences, France
  • 5Laboratoire de Météorologie Dynamique (UMR 8539) (LMD) - Université Pierre et Marie Curie - Paris 6, Institut national des sciences de l’Univers, École Polytechnique, École des Ponts ParisTech, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique: UMR8539, École Normale Supérieure, Paris, Fra
  • 6Total EP – R&D Frontier Exploration, France

Abstract. During past geological times, the Earth suffered several intervals of global warmth but their driving factors remain equivocal. A careful appraisal of the main processes involved in those past events is essential to evaluate how they can inform future climates, and thus to provide decision makers with a clear understanding of the processes at play in a warmer world. In this context, the greenhouse Earth of the Cretaceous era, specifically the Cenomanian-Turonian (~ 94 Ma), is of particular interest, as it corresponds to a thermal maximum. Here we use the IPSL-CM5A2 Earth System Model to unravel the forcing parameters of the Cenomanian-Turonian greenhouse climate. We perform six simulations with an incremental change in five major boundary conditions in order to isolate their respective role on climate change between the Cretaceous and the preindustrial. Starting with a preindustrial simulation, we implement: (1) the absence of polar ice sheets, (2) the increase in atmospheric pCO2 to 1120 ppm, (3) the change of vegetation and soil parameters, (4) the 1 % decrease in the Cenomanian-Turonian value of the solar constant and (5) the Cenomanian-Turonian paleogeography. Between the first (preindustrial) simulation and the last (Cretaceous) simulation, the model simulates a global warming of more than 11 °C. Most of this warming is driven by the increase in atmospheric pCO2 to 1120 ppm. Paleogeographic changes represent the second major contributor to the global warming while the reduction in the solar constant counteracts most of the geographically-driven global warming. We also demonstrate that the implementation of Cretaceous boundary conditions flattens the temperature gradients compared to the piControl simulation. Interestingly, we show that paleogeography is the major driver of the flattening in the low- to mid-latitudes whereas the pCO2 rise and polar ice sheet retreat dominate the high-latitudes response.

Marie Laugié et al.
Interactive discussion
Status: open (until 10 Mar 2020)
Status: open (until 10 Mar 2020)
AC: Author comment | RC: Referee comment | SC: Short comment | EC: Editor comment
[Subscribe to comment alert] Printer-friendly Version - Printer-friendly version Supplement - Supplement
Marie Laugié et al.
Marie Laugié et al.
Viewed  
Total article views: 150 (including HTML, PDF, and XML)
HTML PDF XML Total Supplement BibTeX EndNote
108 39 3 150 12 1 3
  • HTML: 108
  • PDF: 39
  • XML: 3
  • Total: 150
  • Supplement: 12
  • BibTeX: 1
  • EndNote: 3
Views and downloads (calculated since 14 Jan 2020)
Cumulative views and downloads (calculated since 14 Jan 2020)
Viewed (geographical distribution)  
Total article views: 58 (including HTML, PDF, and XML) Thereof 58 with geography defined and 0 with unknown origin.
Country # Views %
  • 1
1
 
 
 
 
Cited  
Saved  
No saved metrics found.
Discussed  
No discussed metrics found.
Latest update: 26 Jan 2020
Publications Copernicus
Download
Short summary
To quantify the impact of major climate forcings on the Cretaceous climate, we use Earth System Modelling to progressively reconstruct the Cretaceous state by changing boundary conditions one by one. Between the preindustrial simulation and the Cretaceous simulation, the model simulates a global warming of more than 11 °C. The study confirms the primary control exerted by atmospheric CO2 on atmospheric temperatures. Paleogeographic changes represent the second major contributor to the warming.
To quantify the impact of major climate forcings on the Cretaceous climate, we use Earth System...
Citation