Journal cover Journal topic
Climate of the Past An interactive open-access journal of the European Geosciences Union
https://doi.org/10.5194/cp-2017-8
© Author(s) 2017. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.
Research article
24 Jan 2017
Review status
A revision of this discussion paper is under review for the journal Climate of the Past (CP).
Influence of solar variability on the occurrence of Central European weather types from 1763 to 2009
Mikhaël Schwander1,2, Marco Rohrer1,2, Stefan Brönnimann1,2, and Abdul Malik1,2 1Institute of Geography, University of Bern, Bern, 3012, Switzerland
2Oeschger Centre for Climate Change Research, University of Bern, Bern, 3012, Switzerland
Abstract. The impact of solar variability on weather and climate in Central Europe is still not well understood. In this paper we use a new time series of daily weather types to analyse the influence of the 11-year solar cycle on the tropospheric weather of Central Europe. We employ a novel, daily weather type classification over the period 1763–2009 and investigate the occurrence frequency of weather types under low, moderate and high solar activity level. Results show a tendency towards fewer days with westerly and west south-westerly flow over Central Europe under low solar activity. In parallel, the occurrence of northerly and easterly types increases. Changes are consistent across different sub-periods. For the 1958–2009 period, a more detailed view can be gained from reanalysis data. Mean sea level pressure composites under low solar activity also show a reduced zonal flow, with an increase of the mean blocking frequency between Iceland and Scandinavia. Weather types and reanalysis data show that the 11-year solar cycle influences the late winter atmospheric circulation over Central Europe with colder (warmer) conditions under low (high) solar activity. Model simulations used for a comparison do not reproduce the imprint of the 11-year solar cycle found in the reanalyses data.

Citation: Schwander, M., Rohrer, M., Brönnimann, S., and Malik, A.: Influence of solar variability on the occurrence of Central European weather types from 1763 to 2009, Clim. Past Discuss., https://doi.org/10.5194/cp-2017-8, in review, 2017.
Mikhaël Schwander et al.
Mikhaël Schwander et al.
Mikhaël Schwander et al.

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Short summary
We used a new classification of daily weather patterns to analyse the influence of solar variability (11-year cycle) on European climate from 1763 to 2009. The analysis of the weather patterns occurrences shows a reduction in the number of days with a westerly flow over Europe under low solar activity during late winter. In parallel, the number of days with a northerly and easterly flow increases. Based on these results we expect colder winter over Europe under low solar activity.
We used a new classification of daily weather patterns to analyse the influence of solar...
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