Maastrichtian carbon isotope stratigraphy and cyclostratigraphy of the Newfoundland Margin (Site U1403, IODP Leg 342)
Oliver Friedrich1, Sietske J. Batenburg2,3, Kazuyoshi Moriya4, Silke Voigt2, Cécile Cournède5, Iris Möbius1,6, Peter Blum7, André Bornemann8, Jens Fiebig2, Takashi Hasegawa4, Pincelli M. Hull9, Richard D. Norris10, Ursula Röhl11, Thomas Westerhold11, Paul A. Wilson12, and IODP Expedition*1Institute of Earth Sciences , Ruprecht - Karls - University Heidelberg, Im Neuenheimer Feld 234 - 236, 69120 Heidelberg, Germany 2Institute of Geosciences, Goethe - University Frankfurt, Altenhöferallee 1, 60438 Frankfurt am Main, Germany 3present address: Department of Earth Sciences, University of Oxford, South Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3AN, United Kingdom 4School of Natural Sciences and Technology, Kanazawa University, Kakuma - machi, Kanazawa, Ishikawa 920 -1192, Japan 5CEREGE, Université Aix - Marseille, Europole de l’Arbois BP 80 1, 13545 Aix en Provence, France 6present address: Lamont - Doherty Earth Observatory , Columbia University, 61 Route 9W , Palisades NY 10964, USA 7Integrated Ocean Drilling Program, Texas A& M, 1000 Discovery Drive, College Station, TX 77845 - 9547, USA 8Bundesanstalt für Geowissenschaften und Rohstoffe, Stilleweg 2, 30655 Hannover, Germany 9Department of Geology and Geophysics, Yale University, 210 Whitney Ave, New Haven, CT 06511 , USA 10Scripps Institution of Oceanography, University of California San Diego, 9500 Gilman Drive, La Jolla, CA 92093 - 0244, USA 11MARUM, University Bremen, Leobener Strasse, 28359 Bremen, Germany 12National Oceanography Centre Southampton, University of Southampton, Waterfront Campus, European Way, Southampton SO14 3ZH, UK *342 Scientists
Received: 02 May 2016 – Accepted for review: 15 May 2016 – Discussion started: 18 May 2016
Abstract. Earth’s climate during the Maastrichtian (latest Cretaceous) was punctuated by brief warming and cooling episodes, accompanied by perturbations of the global carbon cycle. Superimposed on a long-term cooling trend, the middle Maastrichtian is characterized by deep-sea warming and relatively high values of stable carbon-isotope ratios, followed by strong climatic variability towards the end of the Cretaceous. A lack of knowledge on the timing of climatic change inhibits our understanding of underlying causal mechanisms. We present an integrated stratigraphy from Site U1403, providing an expanded deep ocean record from the North Atlantic (IODP Expedition 342, Newfoundland Margin). Distinct sedimentary cyclicity suggests that orbital forcing played a major role on depositional processes, which is confirmed by statistical analyses of high resolution elemental data obtained by X-ray fluorescence (XRF) scanning. Astronomical calibration reveals that the investigated interval encompasses seven 405-kyr cycles (Ma4051 to Ma4057) and spans 2.8 Myr directly preceding the Cretaceous/Paleocene (K/Pg) boundary. A high-resolution carbon-isotope record from bulk carbonates allows to identify global trends in the late Maastrichtian carbon cycle. Low-amplitude variations (up to 0.4 ‰), typical for open ocean settings, are compared to the hemipelagic Zumaia section (N-Spain), with a well-established independent cyclostratigraphic framework. Whereas the pre-K/Pg oscillations and the negative values of the Mid-Maastrichtian Event (MME) can be readily discerned in both records, patterns diverge around 67.5 Ma, with Site U1403 more reliably reflecting global climate change. Our new carbon isotope record and the established cyclostratigraphy from Site U1403 may serve as a future reference for detailed studies of late Maastrichtian events in the North Atlantic.
Friedrich, O., Batenburg, S. J., Moriya, K., Voigt, S., Cournède, C., Möbius, I., Blum, P., Bornemann, A., Fiebig, J., Hasegawa, T., Hull, P. M., Norris, R. D., Röhl, U., Westerhold, T., Wilson, P. A., and IODP Expedition: Maastrichtian carbon isotope stratigraphy and cyclostratigraphy of the Newfoundland Margin (Site U1403, IODP Leg 342), Clim. Past Discuss., doi:10.5194/cp-2016-51, 2016.