Journal cover Journal topic
Climate of the Past An interactive open-access journal of the European Geosciences Union
doi:10.5194/cp-2016-136
© Author(s) 2016. This work is distributed
under the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.
Research article
21 Dec 2016
Review status
This discussion paper is under review for the journal Climate of the Past (CP).
Evaluation of PMIP2 and PMIP3 simulations of mid-Holocene climate in the Indo-Pacific, Australasian and Southern Ocean regions
Duncan Ackerley1, Jessica Reeves2, Cameron Barr3,4, Helen Bostock5, Kathryn Fitzsimmons6, Michael-Shawn Fletcher7, Chris Gouramanis8, Helen McGregor9, Scott Mooney10, Steven Phipps11, John Tibby3,4, and Jonathan Tyler3,4 1ARC Centre of Excellence for Climate System Science, School of Earth, Atmosphere and Environment, Monash University, Victoria 3800, Australia
2Federation University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Mt Helen, Ballarat, Victoria 3353, Australia
3Department of Geography, Environment and Population. University of Adelaide, North Terrace, Adelaide, 5005
4Sprigg Geobiology Centre. University of Adelaide, North Terrace, Adelaide, 5005
5National Institute of Water and Atmospheric Research, 301 Evans Bay Parade, Greta Point, Wellington, New Zealand
6Max Planck Research Group for Terrestrial Palaeoclimates, Climate Geochemistry, Max Planck Institute for Chemistry, Hahn-Meitner-Weg 1, 55128 Mainz, Germany
7School of Geography, University of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria, Australia, 3010
8Department of Geography, National University Of Singapore, 10 Kent Ridge Crescent, Singapore 119260
9School of Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Wollongong, Northfields Ave, Wollongong NSW 2522 Australia
10School of Biological, Earth and Environmental Science, UNSW, Sydney 2052
11Institute for Marine and Antarctic Studies, University of Tasmania, Hobart, Tasmania, Australia
Abstract. Paleoclimate proxy reconstruction initiatives, such as the Australian component of the international paleoclimate synthesis effort: INTegration of Ice core, MArine and Terrestrial records (OZ-INTIMATE), are important as they provide evidence of past climatic conditions that are necessary to evaluate global General Circulation Models (GCMs). One of the key outputs from the OZ-INTIMATE project was the production of spatially-coherent, climatic reconstructions over the southern Maritime Continent, Australasia and the Southern Ocean. The OZ-INTIMATE results were presented as regional, "simplified patterns of temperature and effective precipitation" and those regions spanned a large enough area to contain several GCM grid boxes. Therefore, the "upscaling" of individual reconstructions (through OZ-INTIMATE) to a scale that was resolved by GCMs, presented an ideal opportunity for a direct comparison.

This study uses the same "simplified patterns of temperature and effective precipitation" approach from OZ-INTIMATE on data from an ensemble of GCMs. The GCM data are taken from the Paleoclimate Modeling Intercomparison Project (PMIP) mid-Holocene (6000 years before present, 6 ka) and pre-industrial control (c1750 C.E., 0 ka) experiments. The synthesis presented here shows that, on the whole, the models and proxies agree on the differences in climate state for 6 ka relative to 0 ka, when they are insolation driven. The main disagreement between the models and proxies occurs over the Tropical West Pacific warm pool and arises from an intensification of an existing error (the "cold tongue bias"). This study also presents a mechanism whereby the strength of the Southern Hemisphere, mid-latitude westerly wind strength reduces but rainfall increases over the southern temperate zone of Australia. Such a mechanism may be useful for resolving disparities between different regional proxy records, and model simulations. Finally, after assessing the available datasets (model and proxy), opportunities for better model-proxy integrated research are presented.


Citation: Ackerley, D., Reeves, J., Barr, C., Bostock, H., Fitzsimmons, K., Fletcher, M.-S., Gouramanis, C., McGregor, H., Mooney, S., Phipps, S., Tibby, J., and Tyler, J.: Evaluation of PMIP2 and PMIP3 simulations of mid-Holocene climate in the Indo-Pacific, Australasian and Southern Ocean regions, Clim. Past Discuss., doi:10.5194/cp-2016-136, in review, 2016.
Duncan Ackerley et al.
Duncan Ackerley et al.
Duncan Ackerley et al.

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Short summary
A selection of climate models have been used to simulate both pre-industrial (1750 C.E.) and mid-Holocene (6000 years ago) conditions. This study presents an assessment of the temperature, rainfall and flow over Australasia from those climate models. The model data are compared with available proxy data reconstructions (e.g. tree rings) for 6000 years ago, to identify whether the models are reliable. Places where there is both agreement and conflict are highlighted and investigated further.
A selection of climate models have been used to simulate both pre-industrial (1750 C.E.) and...
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