Journal cover Journal topic
Climate of the Past An interactive open-access journal of the European Geosciences Union
© Author(s) 2016. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.
Research article
05 Dec 2016
Review status
A revision of this discussion paper was accepted for the journal Climate of the Past (CP) and is expected to appear here in due course.
Antarctic climate and ice sheet configuration during a peak-warmth Early Pliocene interglacial
Nicholas R. Golledge1,2, Zoë A. Thomas3, Richard H. Levy2, Edward G. W. Gasson4, Timothy R. Naish1, Robert M. McKay1, Douglas E. Kowalewski5, and Christopher J. Fogwill3 1Antarctic Research Centre, Victoria University of Wellington, Wellington 6140, NZ
2GNS Science, Avalon, Lower Hutt 5011, New Zealand
3Climate Change Research Centre, University of New South Wales, Sydney NSW 2052, Australia
4Department of Geography, The University of Sheffield, Sheffield S10 2TN, UK
5Department of Earth, Environment, and Physics, Worcester State University, Worcester, MA 01602, USA
Abstract. The geometry of Antarctic ice sheets during warm periods of the geological past is difficult to determine from geological evidence, but is important to know because such reconstructions enable a more complete understanding of how the ice-sheet system responds to changes in climate. Here we investigate how Antarctica evolved under orbital and greenhouse gas conditions representative of a peak warmth interglacial in the early Pliocene at 4.23 Ma. Using offline-coupled climate and ice-sheet models, together with palaeoenvironmental proxy data to define a likely climate envelope, we simulate a range of ice-sheet geometries and calculate their likely contribution to sea level. In addition, we use these simulations to investigate the processes by which the West and East Antarctic ice sheets respond to environmental forcings and the timescales over which these behaviours manifest. We conclude that the Antarctic ice sheet contributed approximately 8.5 m to global sea level at this time, under an atmospheric CO2 concentration identical to present (400 ppm). Warmer-than-present ocean temperatures led to the collapse of West Antarctica over centuries, whereas higher air temperatures initiated surface melting in parts of East Antarctica that over one to two millennia led to lowering of the ice-sheet surface, flotation of grounded margins in some areas, and retreat of the ice sheet into the Wilkes Subglacial Basin. The results show that regional variations in climate, ice-sheet geometry, and topography produce long-term sea-level contributions that are non-linear with respect to the applied forcings, and which under certain conditions exhibit threshold behaviour associated with behavioural tipping points.

Citation: Golledge, N. R., Thomas, Z. A., Levy, R. H., Gasson, E. G. W., Naish, T. R., McKay, R. M., Kowalewski, D. E., and Fogwill, C. J.: Antarctic climate and ice sheet configuration during a peak-warmth Early Pliocene interglacial, Clim. Past Discuss.,, in review, 2016.
Nicholas R. Golledge et al.
Nicholas R. Golledge et al.


Total article views: 584 (including HTML, PDF, and XML)

HTML PDF XML Total BibTeX EndNote
391 136 57 584 6 59

Views and downloads (calculated since 05 Dec 2016)

Cumulative views and downloads (calculated since 05 Dec 2016)

Viewed (geographical distribution)

Total article views: 584 (including HTML, PDF, and XML)

Thereof 577 with geography defined and 7 with unknown origin.

Country # Views %
  • 1



Latest update: 27 Jun 2017
Publications Copernicus
Short summary
We investigated how the Antarctic climate and ice sheets evolved during a period of warmer-than-present temperatures 4 million years ago, during a time when the carbon dioxide concentration in the atmosphere was very similar to today's level. Using computer models to first simulate the climate, and then how the ice sheets responded, we found that Antarctica most likely lost around 8.5 m sea-level equivalent ice volume as both east and west Antarctic ice sheets retreated.
We investigated how the Antarctic climate and ice sheets evolved during a period of...