Paleoclimate and weathering of the Tokaj (NE Hungary) loess-paleosol sequence: a comparison of geochemical weathering indices and paleoclimate parameters
A.-K. Schatz, T. Scholten, and P. Kühn
Soil Science and Geomorphology Group, Department of Geosciences, Faculty of Science, University of Tübingen, Rümelinstrasse 19–23, 72072 Tübingen, Germany
Received: 09 Dec 2013 – Accepted for review: 16 Jan 2014 – Discussion started: 05 Feb 2014
Abstract. The Tokaj loess-paleosol sequence in NE Hungary is one of the key sites for detailed paleoclimate reconstructions of the Quaternary in SE Europe. In this study, the geochemical composition of samples from the upper part of the sequence (45–21 ka) was analyzed and a variety of commonly used weathering indices and element ratios were applied to estimate weathering intensity. Further, similarities and differences between these weathering indices and their sensitivity to changes in paleoclimatic conditions were assessed. Results indicate that all of them accurately track changes in weathering intensity and are, with minor exceptions, very similar to each other.
Based on different transfer functions for major and trace element concentrations (XRF), magnetic susceptibility (MS) and δ13C data, we calculated mean annual paleotemperature and mean annual paleoprecipitation for the time intervals of paleosol formation (45–27 ka) and dust deposition (27–21 ka). Results differ depending on the respective transfer function and method but largely agree with previously published paleoclimate data of the region. XRF- and δ13C-based results converge to a MAT of 8–10°C (paleosol) and 8–9°C (loess) and show a~MAP range of 685–879 mm a-1 (paleosol) and 572–700 mm a-1 (loess). MS-based results are most reliable with MATs of 8.4°C (paleosol) and 6.7°C (loess) and MAPs of 325–441 mm a-1 (paleosol) and 224 mm a-1 (loess).
Schatz, A.-K., Scholten, T., and Kühn, P.: Paleoclimate and weathering of the Tokaj (NE Hungary) loess-paleosol sequence: a comparison of geochemical weathering indices and paleoclimate parameters, Clim. Past Discuss., 10, 469-507, doi:10.5194/cpd-10-469-2014, 2014.